International Youth Congress of Compatriots. American values: Quotable: James Glassman on a com Media Campaign to Promote Cultural Exchange along Professor - Public Relations open rank Making international friends Danny Danon is leaving the cabinet to take up his An edited Facebook entry on State Dept. John L. An edited version of a facebook entry on "An Attem Embassy in Havana, a qu Our youth as ambassadors Vietnam, U. Though he also welcomed the military defeat of his arch enemy, Russia, he is said to have regretted the setback to the autocratic form of government, the more so as he feared the spread of revolutionary currents see also H.
That circumstance Turkey, too, as in the Young Turks enforced the reinstallation of the constitution. In Politics , Aydin offers a rare global perspective on the various ways religious tradition and the experience of European colonialism interacted with Muslim and non-Muslim discontent concerning Western-dominated globalization, the international order and modernization.
With a comparative focus on Ottoman pan-Islamic and Japanese pan-Asian visions of world order from the middle of the nineteenth century to the end of World War II, he offers a global-historical perspective on modern anti-Western critiques, Aydin gives full treatment to the Russo-Japanese War, but he concludes that the anti-Western movement in both countries started much earlier, with Christian-Islamic tensions in the case of Turkey and racial antagonisms in the case of Japan.
In this strained atmosphere the Russo-Japanese War delivered a blow leading to the liberation of both societies. It empowered the claims of non-Western intellectuals in the debates about race, the Orient, and progress and provided the strongest evidence against the discourse of permanent and eternal superiority of the white rice over the colored races.
Much more than documents.
A contemporary Russian cartoon of the war. This led to an increase of pan-Islamic thought in Turkey and pan-Asian ideology in Japan, and to growing self-confidence in other regions of Asia, where underdevelopment came to be viewed as merely a temporary delay in progress that could be altered by reforms, such as those Meiji Japan had implemented in just three decades Aydin, Politics pp. Though Japanese pan-Asianists were mainly in opposition to their government until the late s, they gained influence in the s with their claim that, given the superiority of Asian civilization against the declining West, it was better for Japan to be the leader of a future free Asia than to be simply a yellow-race partner discriminated against in the club of white great powers.
The Russians, who had fought the war under the banner of Christianity and had been encouraged in that stance by Wilhelm II and other German propagandists, had to recognize that, together with nationalism, three major non-Western world religions—Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism—experienced a reawakening and revival in the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War Aydin, Politics p. Now the Turks would also recover their pride. There seemed to be clear evidence that modernization need not necessarily mean Westernization so also Hirama pp.
In Worringer , the author maintains that provincial Arab elites under Ottoman rule viewed Japanese ancestral rites as a pattern for Muslims to emulate in revering their Arab forefathers. Their admiration for Japan, however, had a negative effect on Turkey: the Arabs gained neither cultural recognition as a special group within the empire nor a share in real political power.
Introduction: Japanese-German Mutual Images from the 1860s to the Present
As a result, they deepened their identity as Arabs, and the discourse on Japanese modernity in the pages of the Arabic press shifted to a politicized critique of Ottoman failures in comparison with Japanese successes, particularly in the area of education. For this episode the reader would have welcomed a more detailed narrative. Since Japan and Turkey had no diplomatic relations, German intervention became necessary. Pertev was lucky to be able to count on an influential mediator, General Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, who in had been in the service of the Ottoman government for the modernization of the Turkish army.
The German general succeeded in convincing the sultan to dispatch Pertev to the Far Eastern war theatre. He further provided letters of recommendation to the Japanese army in favor of Pertev, who was attached to the staff of General Nogi Maresuke. Remaining near the front, he was even wounded once. In this way the German military obtained first-hand reports about the course of war. It is therefore small wonder that an enthusiastic Pertev prophesied that the Ottoman Empire would in the near future rise with the same brilliance as Japan.
It is therefore no surprise that the Ottoman armed forces looked to Japan for ideas on how to integrate the military into the modern state. The turning point came with the constitutional monarchy, in which the reigning sultan and his ministers would be controlled by an elected parliament. The Young Turks believed that traditional Turkish moral values, and in particular Turkish martial values, such as courage and readiness for self-sacrifice, were the bedrock of a powerful army and nation.
Western science, technology and methods of organization must be adopted, but Eastern moral values must be maintained alongside them. The Young Turks argued that the Japanese had combined their indigenous moral values with an imitation of Western technical improvements and had thereby achieved their current power and status. Emperor of Japan and his British and American well-wishers according to a Russian cartoon. The contribution of E.
To reach the open sea, however, it had to pass though the Turkish straits. Meanwhile, Russia was defending the interests of Serbia on the issue of Bosnia-Herzegovina, controlled by Austria-Hungary. Russian aims concerning the straits, however, failed because of British opposition, and Russian approval of the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in was followed by a sharp protest from Serbia. In the end empty-handed, St.
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Li in Wolff p. Throughout the country, pride was felt because of the success of the Japanese victory over a European great power; by contrast Russia earned contempt. The euphoria led to the end of the Chinese monarchy, which was unable to reform successfully.
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The imperial government, heading for the revolution of and a phase of modernization, was now frequently compared to the weakened tsarist regime. Many Chinese went to study at Japanese universities, and officers to attend the military academy. Sun Yat-sen, the father of the Chinese revolution, rejoiced at the Japanese victory G. The constitutional movement in China received fresh impetus. Li in Wolff pp. In the same year the first political party in China was founded, and the foundations established for a constitutional monarchy.
Government reforms included establishment of an elected assembly. Furthermore, public opinion attained greater weight, since popular discontent had erupted in connection with the Portsmouth treaty concluding the Russo-Japanese War. The government became more and more dependent on the Lower House, which had to approve the budget, first for warfare and later for peacetime rearmament.
As a result, the oligarchs increasingly made compromises and entered into alliances with the political parties. These events are described by N. This topic was thoroughly discussed by Y. Kowner views the war as a continuity of the preceding Meiji policy rather than as a caesura in Japanese history. He thus differs from most other authors. Though he perceives some critique of the war from the Socialist camp, he concludes that as in Europe in World War I, national identity largely overshadowed class identity.
Eventually this resulted in the fragmentation of the Socialist movement. Furthermore, the increasing military successes had weakened pacifism, and many former Socialists had entered the nationalist camp. On the other hand, St. Lone detects very strong antimilitaristic and pacific voices in Meiji Japan—sentiments that had been silenced only temporarily by national passion, particularly during the war with Russia, but had been revived immediately after the conclusion of peace.
They were particularly strong in rural areas, where conscription, war injuries and tax increases imposed greater hardships than were felt in the big cities.
Konishi finds a similar tendency among intellectuals, expressed in an antiwar movement and anarchism. Their circle also established contact with such similarly minded Russian intellectuals as Pyotr Kropotkin and Lev Tolstoi. For them, war and imperialism were simply inhumane similarly, M. Sprotte in Sprotte.
Baron Kaneko and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) : A Study in the Public Diplomacy of Japan
Shimazu, in her monograph, also demonstrates that an antiwar movement arose, including among other groups journalists - particularly from the newspaper Heimin Shinbun - Socialists, pacifists and Christians. It is surprising that, according to Shimazu, the mood of low-level patriotism did not change during the victorious campaigns as the result of official hero worship during and after the war.
The soldiers did not believe themselves to be the successors of the glorious samurai class but saw themselves as the underdogs of the modern state. Their loyalty was paid, not to abstract concepts, such as state or throne, but to family and locality, the concrete sources of individual identity. In the years following the peace treaty it became evident that Korea and China were the principal victims of the Russo-Japanese War.
This fact was not, however, sufficiently taken into consideration in the volumes introduced here, perhaps because few scholars from these two countries are among the authors. At the beginning of the war Korea was too weak to do anything other than declare her neutrality, as S. This action was the continuation of earlier policy, conducted in the hope that tensions between Russia and Japan would lead to a balance of power between the two rivals.
The result was that Seoul was forced to conclude an alliance with Japan in February The expectation that the war would be limited to Manchuria and concentrate on solving the Manchurian problem, so that Korea would stay in the shadow of the conflict and preserve her independence, was soon dispelled. Kim in Wolff , as well as W.
Including the prehistory of the conflict, D. He not only backed the wrong horse, but also, as the author claims, failed to carry out critical reforms. The result was that Great Britain as well as the United States were increasingly willing to tolerate Japanese predominance. Both St. This action prompted no international protest. According to D.
The reader, however, must question whether there had ever been a chance to save Korean sovereignty, since the country was betrayed by the whole world. In Wolff , K. Kim presents in greater detail the American attitude. The principle of the open door , declared by the USA in , had opposed European colonialism in demanding equal opportunities for economic activities and trade. The abrogation of the unequal treaties for Korea soon after the conclusion of the Protectorate Treaty did not strengthen the rights of Seoul but secured Japanese rule at the cost of other great powers see M.
These secret concessions became public only on the publication of Russian documents after the October Revolution in Seok maintains that even after the Portsmouth treaty, Japan had to proceed cautiously so as to avoid risking intervention by other nations and averting humiliation as had occurred during the triple intervention in How much the annexation of traumatized the Koreans to this day can be understood from the contribution of G.
Podoler and M.